She gained a reputation for appreciating the fine nuances of the law and voting decisively in key cases where the court was divided. Although many lawyers adopt clearer and more direct spelling, there are still industry-specific phrases that confuse those without legal experience. For example, the term “stolen” versus “burgled.” These words have different definitions depending on the law and must be correctly translated into the corresponding legal term in the corresponding target language in order to obtain their legal meaning. Translation service providers must ensure that these nuances are preserved in their legal translation services. No nuances of the law, because remember, in this case, it is no longer a question of law. What does “The Hill Case” tell us about Richard Nixon? It is remarkable to see a Nixon so preoccupied with the intellectual nuances of law; who devotes his energy to logical reasoning and persuasion; who is self-critical and self-confident. “Rule of law” does not mean the same thing in Chinese (法治 fazhi) as it does in English. This article compares three types of nuances: different definitions of law, different relationships between law and ethics, and different policy implications. Initially, Mr.
Altchiler said he had nothing against Mr. Levy`s involvement because Mr. Levy could be helpful as someone familiar with the nuances of the law in Putnam County and the personalities involved. He said he would teach the nuances of the law to officials enrolled in his training courses in the coming weeks. An attack occurs when the accused “intentionally or recklessly induced another person to resort to immediate and unlawful personal violence.” The House of Lords upheld this definition of the offence in R. v. Ireland; Burstow.  What is the relationship between the party and the law? China`s stated guiding principle is an “organic whole” in three parts, taught by constitutional textbooks at all school levels. The Chinese became very secular very early, at the latest in the time of Confucius, two and a half millennia ago. Chinese ethics derive mainly from family ethics, which define the order of the family and that of a larger family. The extension of the family order to the political order is the moral construction of government.
Therefore, “nation” in Chinese is “国家, guojia”, which literally means “a country of family” or “a country of families”.  Jeremy Horder, Ashworth`s Principles of Criminal Law (eighth edition, OUP) For a legal system to be effective, there must be a “rule of law,” and an important element of the rule of law is the principle of legality. An essential aspect of the principle of legality is that the law must be “clear” and “easily accessible to the public”.  And this is one of the most important premises under which we will discuss the debate about the meaning of the word “bodily harm” and how that meaning arose because of the similar and relative nature of the offences of “bodily harm” and “bodily harm.” China`s legislature, the unicameral “People`s Congress,” makes the law. The executive branch proposes most bills, as in Japan and Korea. However, Chinese lawmakers require two preconditions for passing laws: one consults widely with stakeholders, the other refers to similar laws in the United States, Japan and European countries. Members will not vote in favour of the bill until consensus is reached. Formal sessions of Congress for public voting serve primarily to show national solidarity, which is crucial for a great nation as such. The incongruity between Chinese law and ethics seems “alien” to the West. On the one hand, this clarification should help to understand the relatively lesser importance of legislation and the increased importance of law enforcement in China. On the other hand, Western nations must also resolve the contradictions between man-made law and “natural law,” namely the need for a Supreme Court or a Constitutional Court. That is, we should avoid exaggerating our differences.
Ensuring the accuracy of legal translations requires translation experience, modern technological tools and proven processes. By paying attention to the specific requirements of translating legal documents, you can protect the intended meaning of these very specific terms in any translation request.  NafizImtiazAraf is a final-year law student completing his LLB at BPP University as part of his full-time distance learning program at the London College of Legal Studies (South), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Contracts, court records and other legal documents naturally contain specific language phrases that are repeated in documents of a similar nature. However, many of these documents do not require a complete translation from scratch. Instead, it is often possible to make updates based on existing documents. In these cases, using previous translations ensures consistency and can control costs because the number of words translated is lower.  Richard Card & Jill Molley, Card, Cross and Jones Criminal Law (22nd edition, OUP) For the Chinese, family ethics are permanent, while laws are changing and pragmatic approaches to solving problems. The Chinese tend to follow laws at will, unless they are enforced harshly. A “good” Chinese citizen may not be a strict law-abiding citizen, but a citizen who is very faithful to family ethics. For the West, ethics and law are the same, and all man-made laws must follow the LAW, the higher-level law. Therefore, Westerners have a tradition of respecting the rule of law.
However, the Chinese continue to support the government agency that enacts and enforces laws. Due to the tradition of blurred and unstable social divisions, the Chinese government is supposed to be “neutral” among social classes, and not representative of any of them. The traditional Chinese legal system was not part of either the British common law system or the European continental (written) legal system. The main thing about China`s legal system is that the executive hierarchy plays the role of judges. To date, interest groups often challenge court decisions by appealing to the party/government, as they consider the executive branch to be more “neutral” than the judiciary.  Nicola Monaghan, Criminal Law: Directions (4th edition, OUP) Assault is “the intended actual use of unlawful force against another person without his or her consent,” which was also confirmed by the House of Lords in R. v. Ireland; Burstow.  The three parties include the leadership of the Party, the people as the master of the country, and government by law. Even taking into account the penetration of the market mechanism, the three-part “organic whole” seems comparable to “liberal democracy” or “social democracy,” despite the different emphasis on the unity of the vast nation. This principle of the “organic three” does not mean that the party is above the law, nor that it rejects equality between peoples. Moreover, social solidarity in the kinship of the “big family” has been a dominant social value for more than two thousand years.
The class struggle became a notorious concept, especially after the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”. Social criticism targets government bodies rather than laws, whether the government is neutral/fair or selfish/corrupt. * Bodily harm and assault are different crimes with characteristics. The following article reflects the blurring of the boundaries between the two crimes due to the contemporary use of the word aggression.* In the modern West, the representatives of the people make laws that, by and large, replace the righteousness of God or natural law with the rights of ordinary people. Nevertheless, the “higher level” LAW always suggests a kind of absolutist and/or unconditional righteousness.  Haystead v Chief Constable of Darbyshire  2 Cr App R 339 Although the definitions of “bodily harm” and “assault” are drawn from case law, penalties for assault and assault are found in the Criminal Justice Act, which is a statute. Although ordinary assault and assault are very different and distinct crimes, the amount of sentence a judge can impose for both offences is the same. Jones v. Sherwood noted that convictions for “assault and assault” or “assault or assault” are overturned under the rule prohibiting duplicity, according to which a person cannot be convicted on the basis of a written charge accusing more than one crime or alternative crimes, This reinforces the approach that assault and assault are in fact separate offences. However, the decision in R (Kracher) v Leicester Magistrates Court , in which the Court held that a battery charge must be interpreted as an “attack while hitting”, clarifies the distinction between bodily harm and assault and shows their interrelationship. Terminology databases and other language resource management tools allow your legal translation services partner to store a growing database of sentences that remain consistent across all your documents. This increases the speed, efficiency, and accuracy of translating legal documents as your termbases continue to grow.
Clear and irrefutable language is crucial for legal documents. Many of these documents are added to the public registry or require rigorous review in the event of litigation or other litigation.  Michael Jefferson, Criminal Law (twelfth edition, Pearson Education Limited) Ludwig is the first sentence search engine to help you write better English by giving you contextualized examples from reliable sources.  Jonathan Herring, Criminal Law: Text, Cases And Materials (seventh edition, OUP) Chapter 1 However, the Chinese sage Mencius (BC385—BC289) famously said: “Acts of kindness are not enough to govern, and laws do not practice themselves” (徒善不足以为政,徒法不足以自行).