One of the major challenges in oncology is invasive methods of detection and treatment. The method of tissue biopsy is very challenging when it comes to cost, pain and risk associated with the procedure. As per the tissue biopsy is a concern, sample collection is very difficult. It involves invasive surgery, which increases the recovery time for patients post the procedure and the procedure is quite riskier too.
Liquid biopsy is novel technology, which involves sampling and analysis of non solid bio molecules. This procedure uses liquid biomarkers blood, urine, etc. (Mostly blood and urine). These liquid biomarkers carry the fragments shed by the tumours. These fragments are used for analysis of tumour.
As the sample for analysis is liquid here, the collection of these samples is quite simple. That is the reason behind calling liquid biopsy as non invasive method. Liquid biopsy makes use of ctDNA, cfDNA etc. It is also less risky comparing to tissue biopsy.
The method of liquid biopsy is not only restricted to cancer diagnosis and treatment, it can also be employed in heart attack diagnosis, prenatal diagnosis and CNS diagnosis. Based on different diagnosis, the nature of sample used also differs. Liquid biopsy helps to understand better about the molecular changes of cancer tumors, which in turn helps to determine an appropriate treatment plan.