Pharmacogenomics involves study of genomes in drug reaction. It incorporates the concepts of genomics and pharmacology. The aim of pharmacogenomics is optimising the drug therapy in getting desired results. Adverse drug reaction is emerging as one of the challenge in health care industry. Adverse drug reaction accounts for both drug side effects and undesired effects.
Adverse drug reaction is caused by several reasons which include prolonged usage of drug, usage of multiple drugs simultaneously and genomic profile of an individual. So it is clear that genomic profile of individual influences the drug effects. When it comes to genomic profile of individual, every individual is unique. So different genomic profiles influence the effects of drug in different ways.
Every individual’s metabolic pathway of a drug may differ according to the makeup of their gene pattern. Due to these differences individual’s body react differently to certain drugs. These reactions may be fatal and even lead to death. So it is always advisable to analyse the genomic profile of an individual prior to prescribing.
Pharmacogenomics has proved its benefits at various adverse drug reaction problems. Pharmacogenomics drastically reduced the side effects caused by HIV pills, it also helps in administration of drugs like warfarin and it can also drastically reduce autoimmune disorder.
Pharmacogenomics led to advent of precision medicine and personalised medicine. Both this field based on customisation of health care. Patients need to be treated in tailored way for every individual patient. With pharmacogenomics test we analyse how genes affect the metabolism of drugs in the body. After analysing this, a dose of the drug is developed which is not only specific to an individual’s DNA but also predict drug efficacy and safety.